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Author: Languri, Georgiana M.; Boon, Jaap J.
Title Article/Chapter: "Between myth and reality: mummy pigment from the Hafkenscheid collection"
Title of Source: Studies in conservation
Volume Number: 50
Issue Number: 3
Date of Publication: 2005
Page Numbers: 161-178
ISSN: 0039-3630
Language Text: English
Language Summaries: English; French; German; Spanish
References: 86 bibliog. refs.
Subject Keywords English: Colour; Pigment; Analysis; Mummy; Black pigment; Gas chromatography; Mass spectroscopy; Natural resin; Mastic; Linseed oil; Beeswax; Fat; Oil; Asphalt
Subject Keywords French: Couleur; Pigment; Analyse; Momie; Pigment noir; Chromatographie en phase gazeuse; Spectroscopie de masse; Résine naturelle; Mastic; Huile de lin; Cire d'abeille; Graisse; Huile; Asphalte
Subject Geog Name English: Netherlands
Subject Geog Name French: Pays-Bas
Subject Date: 1800AD-1900AD
Subject Geographic Area: Haarlem
Subject Museums: Teylers Museum
Abstract: A nineteenth-century mummy pigment (Hafkenscheid paint material collection) was analysed by direct temperature-resolved mass spectrometry (DTMS) and gas chromatography/mass (GC/MS, Py-GC/MS, Py-TMAH-GC/MS). Megilp and asphalt (Hafkenscheid collection) reference samples were analysed under similar conditions. The mummy pigment investigated is complex. Py-GC/MS data indicated a pre-treated asphalt, i.e. only (di)benzothiophene-and traces of hopane-asphalt markers were left in the sample. DTMS, GC/MS and Py-TMAH-GC/MS results for the pigment pointed to the presence of slightly aged mastic resin and conifer resin and a complex lipid fraction. A poorly oxidized linseed oil and additions of beeswax, seen as long chain normal fatty acids, and another fat of a bacterial, fungal or human origin showing myristic acid, C 6:1 - C 16:1 and C18:1 mono-unsaturated fatty acids, iso and anteiso fatty acids were founds. The main components, mastic resin and linseed oil, suggest a megilp combined with a black mummy-like pigment. In spite of the degrated asphalt, the unusual fat and the beeswax found, a connection between Egyptian mummies and the Hafkenscheid mummies and the Hafkenscheid mummy pigment cannot be proven.
Originating Institution: ICCROM
Location of Document: ICCROM
ICCROM Shelf: Per. IIC 1
Literature Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
BCIN Number: 238765